|Date|| Seminars 2016 (Go to Seminars 2015, Seminars 2014, Seminars 2013, and earlier therein)
|13.01.2016||The History and Future of Time (Measurement)
In this seminar, I will talk about why and how time has been, is and (probably) will be measured. Especially during the last centuries, since the need for exact time keeping for navigation became clear, the goal of more and more precise clocks was pursued. Not only for navigation, but also for geodetic applications and an exact definition of the SI unit second.
|20.01.2016||Phase Transitions in Topological Tensor Network States
Tensor networks can be used as a tool to study topological phases of matter. These phases come with exotic properties such anyonic excitations and topological degeneracy which are manifested as the virtual (hidden) symmetry in the tensor network description of these phases. An important object to study with in tensor network framework is transfer operator. And it is possible characterize different topological phases by the symmetry properties of the transfer operator fixed points. Symmetry breaking in the transfer operator fixed points corresponds to anyon condensation (where anyons identify themselves with the vacuum). In this talk, I will try illustrate these ideas using the test case of Z_4 invariant tensors. Different possible phases and phases transitions that can be encoded in tensor networks with Z_4 virtual symmetry will be described.
|28.01.2016||Natural orbitals of ultracold many-body systems: from experimental reconstruction to correlation analysis in coordinate and energy space
Guest speaker: Sven Krönke (University of Hamburg, Germany)
Deep insights into the structure of a many-body state can often be inferred from its natural orbitals (eigenvectors of the reduced one-body density operator) and their populations. In this talk, various aspects of this theoretical concept will be discussed in the context of ultracold bosonic atoms: First, I will consider the decay of dark solitons due to dynamical quantum depletion as an example for how a natural-orbital analysis can help unravelling complex many-body processes and intriguing aspects of local correlations. Secondly, it will be shown how two-body correlation measurements can in turn be utilized for reconstructing the natural-orbital densities for a certain class of many-body states. Finally, I will discuss in the context of binary bosonic mixtures how the interplay between inter-species correlations and excitation transfer can be made transparent by applying the natural-orbital analysis generalized to a whole species.
|28.01.2016||TUM-MPQ Seminar: Matrix Product States and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Guest speaker: Nicolas Regnault (ENS Paris, France)
The fractional quantum Hall effect is the most celebrate example of a two-dimensional phase that exhibits intrinsic topological order. We will show that many fractional quantum Hall states have an exact infinite matrix product states (MPS) representation. We will discuss how a controlled truncation can be performed on this representation and we will give a natural interpretation from the entanglement spectrum perspective. Through the MPS, We will give evidences why certain model states related to non-unitary conformal field theories, are pathological. We will also show the direct characterization of the Read-Rezayi quasihole excitations from their MPS description.
Speaker: Stefan Kühn
Many practically relevant computational problems are NP-complete and thus it is commonly believed that there are no efficient (meaning polynomial time) algorithms for them. In practice one therefore often has to resort to approximations or heuristics which might not yield an exact/optimal solution. Fixed-parameter algorithms by contrast allow to compute an exact solution. While the runtime is still exponential, the key idea is to limit the combinatorial explosion to a parameter additionally given as input to the problem. Hence, if the parameter is small, this might still result in an acceptable complexity for practical purposes.
In this week's seminar I am going to give a very basic introduction to fixedparameter algorithms and parametrized complexity theory. I will illustrate the method with examples and show some techniques commonly used in this field.
|15.02.2016||Understanding jumps and spikes in continuous quantum trajectories
Guest speaker: Antoine Tilloy (ENS Paris, France)
When a quantum system is subjected to a continuous measurement, its evolution becomes stochastic and in a proper limit, it can be described by a continuous equation with Gaussian noise. On the other hand, it is known since Bohr that a quantum system subjected to successive von Neumann measurements undergoes rare quantum jumps. The objective of this talk is to show how this simple jumpy behavior can be obtained as a Limit of the finer continuous picture and to unravel a genuinely new phenomenon: quantum spikes. After a short reminder of continuous measurement theory, I will explain why continuous quantum trajectories show seemingly discontinuous jumps when the measurement strength is increased and give an idea of the general proof. I will then say a few words about Quantum spikes, sharp scale invariant fluctuations which decorate the jumps even in the infinitely strong measurement limit and which are simply lost in the von Neumann approximation.
|24.02.2016||A beginner's introduction to gravitational waves surfing
Speaker: Nicola Pancotti
|02.03.2016||Lattice models and wave functions for the Fractional Quantum Hall effect
Speaker: Ivan Glasser
There is currently a lot of interest in finding models displaying the Fractional Quantum Hall effect in lattice systems. In this talk I will give an introduction to the Fractional Quantum Hall effect and the model wave functions that have contributed to much of our understanding of this effect. I will then show how these wave functions can be applied to lattice systems in the context of infinite dimensional matrix product states using the examples of the Laughlin and the Moore-Read states. I will discuss the properties of these lattice states and show that in most (but not all) cases the topological properties on the lattice are the same as in the continuum. Finally I will explain how to derive exact parent Hamiltonians for these states and how deformations of these parent Hamiltonians lead to
local spin models realizing Fractional Quantum Hall physics.
|09.03.2016||Long range order and symmetry breaking in PEPS
Speaker: Manuel Rispler
I will start by briefly motivating how projected entangled pair states (PEPS) can be used as a framework for the construction of many body models from a single tensor. I will then consider PEPS with Z2-symmetry and study the occurrence of long range order and its relation to the spectrum of the so called transfer operator. I will demonstrate how properties of the transfer operator naturally lead to spontaneous symmetry breaking in its fixed point space and how we can extract physical properties from the latter. I will conclude with discussing the implications of symmetry breaking for the boundary physics of the PEPS model and how it leads to local entanglement Hamiltonians also in symmetry broken phases.
|15.03.2016||Artificial intelligence, learning and quantum mechanics
Guest speaker: Vedran Dunjko (University of Innsbruck, Austria)
In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the potential of quantum improvements in machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI). In this talk, I will present an overview of some of the recent results in this field, but also in the `dual’ discipline, which focuses on the utility of ML/AI techniques when applied to quantum mechanics problems. Following this, I will focus on the research of our group in Innsbruck, which addresses both sides of this coin, primarily through the study of the physics-oriented Projective Simulation model for AI. In the end, I will introduce some of our most recent results which concern provable quantum improvements in learning from quantum-accessible task environments.
|23.03.2016||Casimir-Polder forces and their consequences: from matter-wave scattering in complex geometries to CP violation and quantum friction
Guest speaker: Stefan Buhmann (University of Freiburg, Germany)
Casimir-Polder forces between a single atom and a macroscopic body are effective electromagnetic interactions that may be attributed to the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. I will introduce macroscopic quantum electrodynamics as a powerful tool to study this force for arbitrary geometries. As examples, I will consider a dielectric sphere and a grating, showing how the position-dependent Casimir-Polder energy influences the scattering of cold atomic matter waves. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss two more exotic types of Casimir-Polder interaction. Firstly, I will show how media violating the Lorentz reciprocity property give rise to force which are sensitive to violations of charge-parity symmetry. Secondly, I will discuss how atoms moving parallel to a smooth surface may experience a quantum friction force.
|06.04.2016||TUM-MPQ Seminar: Universal Quantum Physics in Driven Open Many-Body Systems
Guest speaker: Sebastian Diehl (University of Cologne, Germany)
Quantum optics and many-body physics increasingly merge together in ultracold atomic gases and certain classes of solid state systems. This gives rise to new non-equilibrium scenarios even in stationary state, where coherent and dissipative dynamics appear on an equal footing. Oftentimes however, in the transition from microscopic scales to macroscopic distances, much of the underlying quantum dynamics is washed out, and the long distance many-body physics is (semi-)classical.
Here we present two instances which do not follow this generic pattern. The first addresses the critical dynamics in a driven open system with a dark state realizable in microcavity arrays. We find it governed by a new non-equilibrium universality class, characterized by the absence of decoherence and thermalization. The second focuses on an ensemble of driven Rydberg atoms, in which the interplay of constrained coherent quantum dynamics and dissipation leads to a new variant of a non-equilibrium absorbing state transition beyond the classical paradigm of directed percolation.
|20.04.2016||(Quantum) Boltzmann machines
Speaker: András Molnár
In the talk I will introduce Boltzmann machines. Boltzmann machines are a special model for machine learning. I will try to explain how they can be used to solve certain typical tasks such as classification or dimension reduction. Finally I will discuss a possible quantum generalization recently proposed by Amin et al.
|27.04.2016||TUM-MPQ Seminar: Probing dynamical phase transitions with the statistics of excitations
Guest speaker: Alessandro Silva (SISSA, Trieste, Italy)
Dynamical phase transitions can occur in isolated quantum systems that are brought out of equilibrium by either a sudden or a gradual change of their parameters. Theoretical examples rage from the behaviour of the O(N) model in the large N limit as well as spin-model with long range interactions, both showing dynamical criticality in their prethermal steady-states. In this talk I will start by discussing the characterization of such dynamical phase transitions based on the statistics of produced excitations. I will focus both on the role of fluctuations as well as on the difference between sudden and gradual changes of the parameters. Finally, I will discuss a second type type of dynamical criticality discussed in the literature, related to the emergence of zeroes in the Loschmidt amplitude, and show that this phenomenon is much less generic and robust than standard dynamical criticality.
|11.05.2016||An Introduction to Topological Quantum Field Theory
Speaker: Anna Hackenbroich
Intrinsically topologically ordered systems such as fractional quantum Hall samples possess elementary bulk excitations with anyonic statistics. For this reason they are very interesting both in their own right and as possible platforms for topological quantum memories or topological quantum computation. In the limit of very low energies, topologically ordered systems are described by a topological quantum field theory (TQFT). In this talk, we give an elementary introduction to a particular version of TQFT that describes the fusion and braiding of anyons. In particular, we define anyons as representations of the braid group and discuss the concept of fusion and fusion rules. We then introduce fusion and splitting spaces and discuss F-moves and the pentagon equation as well as R-moves and the hexagon equation. These definitions allow us to derive a physical characterisation of the quantum dimension. We conclude by discussing some examples.
|20.05.2016||To what extent can information propagation decouple from energy propagation?
Guest speaker: Robert Jonsson (University of Waterloo, Canada)
The way in which quantities such as energy, classical and quantum information, and entanglement propagate through extended systems is of great interest from quantum field theory to condensed matter systems. Here, I will explore the extent to which the propagation of information requires a flow of energy. I will show that even in the basic case of a massless Klein-Gordon field in the vacuum, the propagation of information can decouple from the propagation of energy to a large extent and, in special circumstances, it can even decouple completely. The new phenomenon arises from the quantization of classical wave phenomena, associated with the strong Huygens principle. These result in signals which propagate partially slower than the speed of light even in massless fields. Potential applications range from cosmology to quantum information.
|25.05.2016||The functional renormalization group and the Hubbard model
Speaker: Benedikt Herwerth
The functional renormalization group provides exact flow equations for generating functionals of quantum field theories under an energy scale. Truncations of these flow equations lead to approximations schemes, which can be used to gain physical insight about the low-energy physics of a model. In this talk, the flow equations for fermionic fields are introduced and applications to the Hubbard model are discussed.
The talk will mainly be based on the following references:
|01.06.2016||From Geometry To Topology
Speaker: Julian Roos
I will give a pedagogical non-formal introduction to the notion of topology. The idea is to outline an intuitive pathway from geometrical to topological concepts by increasing the number of allowed transformations within the congruence classes of Euclidean geometry. I will then pick one or the other basic system from the class of topological phases of matter and discuss why the word topological is used to describe it.
|15.06.2016||Digital Quantum Simulations
Speaker: Daniel González Cuadra
Simulating quantum systems is a hard problem, meaning that the resources that a classical computer requires to study them grows exponentially with the size of the system. Quantum simulations, on the other hand, exploit the quantum nature of highly controllable physical systems, such as trapped ions or ultracold atoms, to perform efficient simulations of a broad range of quantum phenomena. In this seminar I will review the topic of quantum simulation, focussing on the exponential improvement in efficiency with respect to its classical counterpart. I will consider in particular the case of digital quantum simulations, that can be regarded as a class of quantum computation algorithms. Then I will explain how a quantum simulator can be built using a trapped ion setup to study, for example, quantum spin systems. I will finish by showing a recent experiment where a lattice gauge theory was simulated with a four-qubit digital quantum simulator.
|22.06.2016||Topological systems on a lattice
Speaker: Henrik Dreyer
We will discuss the meaning of fusion rules and fusion trees for spin systems on a lattice and derive them for the Kitaev Toric Code. An efficient PEPS construction of its ground state wavefunction will be highlighted. This construction also works for the generalised case - the Quantum Double Models, which we subsequently discuss, in particular in terms of an example that hosts non-abelian anyons.
|29.06.2016||Symmetries in classical and quantum physics - from groups to Hopf C*-algebras
Speaker: Andreas Bauer
Symmetry is one of the leading concepts in physics. For classical, deterministic systems, a symmetry is given by a group and its action on the configuration space via permutations. Using a graphical language, I will motivate that an attempt to generalise the notion of symmetry to a (quantum) probabilistic theory naturally leads to Hopf C*-algebras and their representations. There are many examples of such Hopf C*-algebras that go beyond the case of groups and their representations, like the ones obtained from the so-called quantum double construction. In the end, I will show how the latter can be used to define excitations in the quantum double models.
|06.07.2016||Quantum algorithms for Hamiltonian simulation - an overview of 20 years of progress
Speaker: Yimin Ge
The simulation of the dynamics of quantum systems, as originally envisioned by Feynman, is one of the main motivations for quantum computers. The first explicit quantum algorithm for this problem, due to Lloyd in 1996, simulates the evolution of a local Hamiltonian using a simple Trotter expansion. Although elementary, its complexity is unsatisfactory in several ways. Since then, a wide spectrum of improvements have been proposed, including exponentially better error dependencies, linear time scalings and generalisations to sparse Hamiltonians. The methods range from graph colourings to quantum walks and most recently quantum signal processing. In this talk, I will give an overview of this "zoo" of algorithms, including recent developments towards essentially optimal runtime complexities.
|20.07.2016||Coherently driven 2-component Bose gases
Guest speaker: Alessio Recati (TUM Munich, Germany)
In the present talk I will give an overview on the physics of 2-component Bose gases in presence of a spin exchange Rabi term. The Rabi term reduces the gauge symmetry of the system and a gap opens for relative phase excitations. The latter has many consequences. In particular it leads to the formation of vortex dimers coupled through sine-Gordon solitons. Results on the dynamics of the vortex dimer are presented.
The system exhibits also a second order (quantum) phase transition between a neutral (paramagnetic) and a polarised (ferromagnetic) state, provided the interspecies interaction is large enough. I will discuss some phenomena related to the phase transition and to the two phases and the interplay between Rabi coupling and density-density interaction:
(i) at a mean-field level for a continuous model - which well described atoms in a shallow trap.
(ii) for a one-dimensional single band Hubbard model - which describes atoms confined in an one-dimensional optical lattice.
|28.07.2016||Steady states and dynamics in many-body driven-dissipative systems
Guest speaker: Mohammad Faghfoor Maghrebi (University of Maryland, USA)
Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under non-equilibrium dynamics. In this talk, I use a systematic approach to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions and the dynamics in such models. I show that an effective thermal behavior generically emerges as a result of dissipation. Finally I use this equivalence to make quantitative predictions about the steady-state and dynamical properties of these systems.
|31.08.2016||Quantum Resource Theory and Coherence Measurement
Speaker: Zhiyuan Wei
In this talk I will start by giving an introduction to the concepts and principles of quantum resource theory(QRT). The main idea of QRT is to view some properties of quantum systems as resources for some tasks in quantum information and other areas of physics. QRT can be constructed on many quantities like entanglement, non uniformity and coherence, and relative entropy of a resource play a key role in these QRTs. After that, I will go on to review the recent progress in QRT of coherence, and talk about one of our recent work on measuring the quantum coherence using interference fringes.
|6.09.2016 at 14:00||Correlation reconstruction in non-uniform one-dimensional systems: the example of the free Fermi gas
Invited speaker: Jerome Dubail (University of Lorraine)
Many large-scale, universal, effects in one-dimensional systems at quantum critical points can be tackled with a combination of methods from solvable lattice models and from field theory, usually conformal field theory (CFT) and Luttinger liquid ideas. Yet, the applicability of such tools in condensed matter physics is often limited to situations in which the bulk is uniform: CFT, in particular, describes low-energy excitations around some energy scale, assumed to be constant throughout the system. However, in many experimental contexts, such as quantum gases in trapping potentials and in many out-of-equilibrium situations, systems are strongly inhomogeneous. We will argue that standard CFT methods can nevertheless be extended to deal with such 1D situations, and we will illustrate the main idea with simple free fermion examples. The method we develop can be thought of as the Local Density Approximation (LDA) on steroids: while standard LDA allows to calculate density profiles (more generally, expectation values of local operators), here we use LDA to extract the position-dependent parameters that enter the field theory action, such as the components of the metric tensor. Then, once the action has been fixed, all correlation functions follow; this strategy will be illustrated with new results about entanglement entropies in trapped one-dimensional gases.
We will also discuss a seemingly unrelated problem: the entanglement growth of local operators in Heisenberg picture, which plays a key role in understanding the efficiency/non-efficiency of Heisenberg-picture DMRG. We will shed light on one of the early observations of Prosen and Pizorn [Phys. Rev. A 76, 032316, 2007]: that the entanglement of operators carrying a Jordan-Wigner string grows logarithmically in time
|7.09.2016 at 11:30||Quantum information in many-body physics
Invited speaker: Ugo Marzolino (University of Ljubljana)
I will discuss two research lines I'm developing. The first is quantum information with identical particles. I will start with a careful definition which takes into account the impossibility to distinguish particles, and which reduces to the usual definition for distinguishable particles. I will then show that entanglement of identical particles is easily quantified or witnessed when the total particle number is conserved, and show the effects of noise. These features are manifestations of a geometry of entangled states very different from that of distinguishable particles. The second topic that I will discuss is the characterization of steady states of quantum spin chains using the quantum Fisher information. This approach enables to identify both regimes of quantum enhanced metrology and quantum non-equilibrium phase transition. In particular, I will show the XXZ model with boundary Markovian noise, which exhibits a critical phase with infinitely many critical points and without local order parameters at small noise strength. At moderate and large noise, a local order parameter at the onset of the critical phase emerges.
|12.09.2016 at 15:30||Competition between Weak Quantum Measurement and Many-Body Dynamics in Ultracold Bosonic Gases
Invited speaker: Wojciech Kozlowski (University of Oxford )
Trapping ultracold atoms in optical lattices enabled numerous breakthroughs uniting several disciplines. Although light is a key ingredient in such systems, its quantum properties are typically neglected, reducing its role to a classical tool for atom manipulation. Here we show how elevating light to the quantum level leads to novel phenomena, inaccessible in setups based on classical optics. Interfacing a many-body atomic system with quantum light opens it to the environment in an essentially nonlocal way, where spatial coupling can be carefully designed. The effect of measurement backaction results in the generation of multiple many-body spatial modes which in turn lead to novel multimode dynamics when the coupling is weak. On the other hand, strong measurement leads to non-Hermitian dynamics with selective suppression and enhancement of dynamical processes beyond quantum Zeno dynamics. Finally, we consider measurement backaction due to coupling to the matter-field interference and show it leads to a new type of measurement projections beyond those postulated by the Copenhagen interpretation.
|13.09.2016 at 11:30||Detection efficiency loophole in tests of quantumness
Invited speaker: Marcin Pawłowski (University of Gdańsk)
Tests of quantumness are experiments which enable us to exclude the possibility of modelling them with classical means. They enable us to prove strong statements about the nature of the universe and obtain cryptographic protocols with an unprecedented level of security. One of the biggest problems with these experiments is called "detection efficiency loophole". It refers to the fact that with the current technology most of the results is inconclusive because of the losses in transmission and detection of the particles. In this talk I'll start by presenting the loophole and outlining the dangers it posses both to fundamental research and practical cryptography. Then I'll discuss our latest results on optimization of setups and procedures which increase the critical amount of tolerated losses above which the experiments are inconclusive.
|21.09.2016 at 11:30||How can recent development in machine learning changes
automatic theorem proving?
The recent breakthrough of computer vision has caused a new wave of people applying machine learning to their own domain of interests. In this talk, I will try to focus on a more fundamental problem, which is automatic theorem proving (or more generally, automatically making discoveries in theoretical science). To understand the field and the possible impact from recent machine learning progress, I will give an introduction to a few projects ranged from 1970 - 2016:
The Mizar project: http://mizar.uwb.edu.pl/
The conjecture-making computer program, Graffiti (an interesting read about stories with Erdös http://www.math.uh.edu/~siemion/examples.pdf) The Robbins conjecture: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/RobbinsConjecture.html
A Deepmind's project: http://kotaku.com/google-deepmind-is-now-analysing-magic-and-hearthstone-1767628685 A Google's project: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1606.04442.pdf
(The speaker doesn't know enough about first-order logic. So if you have good knowledge and have some free time before next Wednesday, please contact the speaker email@example.com.)
|28.09.2016 at 11:30||Recent developments on the detection of Bell correlations in many-body quantum systems
Jordi Tura Brugués
In the first part of the talk, I will review some of the progress that has been achieved during the last two years in the detection of nonlocality in many-body quantum systems, both theoretically and experimentally. The second part of the talk will be focused on [arXiv:1607.06090]. There, we present a method to show that the ground state of some quantum many-body spin Hamiltonians in one spatial dimension are nonlocal. We assign a Bell inequality to the given Hamiltonian in a natural way and we ﬁnd its classical bound using dynamic programming. The Bell inequality is such that its quantum value corresponds to the ground state energy of the Hamiltonian, which we ﬁnd exactly by mapping the spin system to a quadratic system of fermions using the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The method can also be used from the opposite point of view; namely, as a new method to optimize certain Bell inequalities. In the translationally invariant (TI) case, we provide an exponentially faster solution of the classical bound and analytically closed expressions of the quantum value. We apply our method to three examples: a tight TI inequality for 8 parties, a quasi TI uniparametric inequality for any even number of parties, and we show that the ground state of a spin glass is nonlocal in some parameter region.
|19.10.2016 at 11:30||Acoustic metamaterials: shaping and controlling sound
In the 2000s, a few decades after Victor Veselago’s original work where he started toying with the idea of negative refractive-index materials, the field of metamaterial research emerged, yielding auspicious results. Metamaterials possess properties unlike any other naturally occurring materials and offer the potential to create, for example, invisibility cloaks or superlenses. Taking its inspiration from recent developments in electromagnetic metamaterials, the field of acoustic metamaterials has focused on the development of artificial structures which are capable of controlling sound propagation in novel ways. In this talk, my aim is to give a pedagogical introduction into the relatively young field of acoustic metamaterials, highlighting current trends and key applications.
|26.10.2016 at 11:30||Generation of Photonic States in Nanophotonic Systems
The preparation of arbitrary photonic states is central to many applications in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. The main approaches to this task are using spontaneous parametric down conversion, single quantum emitters or larger ensembles of quantum emitters. I will explain why it is difficult to obtain arbitrary photonic states with current methods and how our recent work on nanophotonic systems contributes to solving this problem. In our work we explore different protocols for one-dimensional systems and my goal for the talk is to convey the main ideas behind them.
|03.11.2016 at 11:30||Topological order, symmetry, and Hall response of two-dimensional spin-singlet superconductors
Invited speaker: Sergej Moroz (Technische Universität München)
Abstract: Fully gapped two-dimensional superconductors coupled to dynamical electromagnetism are known to exhibit topological order. Although for an s-wave paired state its topological properties can be well captured by the toric code model, I will demonstrate that in the presence of global symmetries this picture is incomplete. In this talk I will present a unified low-energy description for spin-singlet paired states by deriving topological Chern-Simons field theories for s-wave, d + id, and chiral higher even-wave superconductors. These theories encode the quantum statistics and fusion rules of Bogoliubov quasiparticles and vortices and incorporate global continuous symmetries - specifically, spin rotation and conservation of magnetic flux - present in all singlet superconductors, which firmly establishes superconductors as symmetry enriched topological phases. I will compute the Hall response for these symmetries and discuss the physics at the edge.
|9.11.2016 at 15:30||Work and correlations
Marti Perarnau Llobet
Abstract: In thermodynamics, every non-equilibrium state is a source of free energy, and hence (potentially) useful work. A common way of obtaining non-equilibrium states is by having access to thermal baths at different temperatures: This is in fact how thermal machines produce work. However, from a fundamental point of view, there are many other sources of non-equilibrium states, e.g., purity or information. In this talk, I will discuss the potential of (quantum) correlations for work extraction. We will compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy; showing that entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles. Then we will consider the converse question, i.e., the creation of entangled states from thermal states, and derive fundamental bounds on the temperature necessary to generate (multipartite) entanglement.
|16.11.2016 at 11:30||Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
Abstract: In this talk, I will give a very basic introduction about the work of this year's Nobel prize winners, David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz. Also, I will briefly talk about how their "theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter" pave the way for the recent developments in quantum physics.
|22.11.2016 at 11:30||Towards an ideal semiconductor spin qubit
Invited speaker: Marko J. Rancic (University of Konstanz)
Abstract: In the first part of my talk I will focus on two studies in InGaAs double quantum dots. The goal of the first study is to understand the buildup of nuclear polarization in electrostatically defined quantum dots, by means of a many-particle quantum mechanical model. The nuclear polarization is created by repeatedly driving the two-electron system over the singlet-triplet plus S − T + anticrossing in a non-adiabatic manner, thus polarizing the nuclear spins. The obtained theoretical findings suggest that spin-orbit interaction limits the increase of the nuclear polarization , and are proven in a later experimental study. The second study in this part of the talk focuses on a novel method to manipulate the single electron spin in a double quantum dot in InGaAs. The manipulation is based on adiabatic Landau-Zener sweeps and requires spin-orbit interaction. When the energy of one of the quantum dots is varied linearly in time such a parameter regime exists in which the electron virtually tunnels to the adjacent quantum dot and tunnels back with a flipped spin. This method is a quantum dot equivalent of Chirped Raman Adiabatic Passage (CHIRAP). The method operates without a precise knowledge of the spin resonance condition, can be implemented all-electrically and is robust against uncertainties in the nuclear magnetic field. In the second part of my talk I will speak about the coherence properties of single electron spins in single Si/SiGe quantum dots. Unlike InGaAs, Si/SiGe has a majority of zero nuclear spin isotopes. Another difference compared to InGaAs are two energetically close minima of the conduction bands (valleys). When the Si/SiGe interface is imperfect, and a micromagnet is embedded, a novel electron spin decoherence mechanism exists. Due to this novel decoherence mechanism spin coherence and valley relaxation cannot be viewed independently. The findings I’ll present suggest that the limiting factor to the coherence time of the electron spin qubit is the valley relaxation time ∼ 40 μs. In the third part of my talk I will exclusively present most recent findings regarding charge-noise-insensitive exchange of electron spins.
|23.11.2016 at 11:30||Broken and Unbroken PT-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics
Invited speaker: Christoph Sünderhauf (University of Heidelberg)
Abstract: Hamiltonians with PT symmetry (parity-time reflection) rather than Hermiticity can either be PT-unbroken, with all eigenvalues real, or PT-broken, in which case they are not all real and complex eigenvalues appear in complex-conjugate pairs.
This talk will give an introduction to quantum mechanics with non-Hermitian but PT-symmetric Hamiltonians. It will be demonstrated how these correspond to physical systems with balanced gain and loss; this will show the physical significance of the PT phase transition.
Physicists have studied extensively the unbroken region of the model PT-symmetric Hamiltonian H = p^2 + x^2 (ix)^epsilon, with a real parameter epsilon. In this talk, the behavior of the eigenvalues near the special point epsilon = -2 in the broken region will be determined with an argument reminiscent of renormalisation.
|23.11.2016 at 15:00||Non-symmorphic route to nodal semimetals
Invited speaker: Tomáš Bzdušek (ETH Zurich)
Abstract: Nodal semimetals are materials in which the conduction and the valence bands touch at points or lines in the Brillouin zone. Such nodal band structures manifest themselves in unusual transport phenomena as well as in topologically protected surface states. The examples include the chiral Landau levels and negative magnetoresistance for the first, and surface Fermi arcs and surface flat bands for the latter. In spite of these anticipated properties, the number of actual material examples remains still limited.
In this talk, we point out the significant role played by non-symmorphic symmetries, i.e. point symmetries followed by a fractional translation, in imposing various types of nodes. This method has been successfully used to identify new type of Dirac semimetals, hourglass fermions and further new fermions in solids. In our work, we use this strategy to predict new types of three-dimensional semimetals with nodal rings and nodal chains (i.e. multiple interconnected nodal rings). Based on first-principle calculations, we predict that an existing material, IrF4, is likely to exhibit the nodal chain at the Fermi level. We predict this feature to result in several unusual transport properties, including anomalous surface Hall effect and direction-selective negative magnetoresistance.
|01.12.2016 at 15:30||Renormalising Entanglement Distillation
Invited speaker: Stephan Wäldchen
Abstract: Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.
|7.12.2016 at 14:00||Computational Phase Transitions
|15.12.2016 at 14:00||Exact non-Markovian master equations
Invited speaker: Luca Ferialdi (University of Ljubljana)
Abstract: Non-Markovian master equations describe general open quantum systems when no approximation is made. We provide the exact closed master equation for the class of Gaussian, completely positive, trace preserving, non-Markovian dynamics. This very general result allows to investigate a vast variety of physical systems. We show that the master equation for non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion is a particular case of our general result. We further provide the exact master equation for open two-level systems, namely for the spin-boson and Jaynes-Cummings model.