Scrambling in random unitary circuits: Exact results

Bruno Bertini, Lorenzo Piroli
Phys. Rev. B 102, 064305   Published 2020


We study the scrambling of quantum information in local random unitary circuits by focusing on the tripartite information proposed by Hosur et al. We provide exact results for the averaged Renyi-2 tripartite information in two cases: (i) the local gates are Haar random and (ii) the local gates are dual-unitary and randomly sampled from a single-site Haar-invariant measure. We show that the latter case defines a one-parameter family of circuits, and prove that for a ``maximally chaotic'' subset of this family quantum information is scrambled faster than in the Haar-random case. Our approach is based on a standard mapping onto an averaged folded tensor network, that can be studied by means of appropriate recurrence relations. By means of the same method, we also revisit the computation of out-of-time-ordered correlation functions, re-deriving known formulae for Haar-random unitary circuits, and presenting an exact result for maximally chaotic random dual-unitary gates.