Scalable Bell Inequalities for Qubit Graph States and Robust Self-Testing

Flavio Baccari, Remigiusz Augusiak, Ivan Šupić, Jordi Tura, and Antonio Acín
Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 020402   Published 2020

Abstract

Bell inequalities constitute a key tool in quantum information theory: they not only allow one to reveal nonlocality in composite quantum systems, but, more importantly, they can be used to certify relevant properties thereof. We provide a general construction of Bell inequalities that are maximally violated by the multiqubit graph states and can be used for their robust self-testing. Apart from their theoretical relevance, our inequalities offer two main advantages from an experimental viewpoint: (i) they present a significant reduction of the experimental effort needed to violate them, as the number of correlations they contain scales only linearly with the number of observers; (ii) numerical results indicate that the self-testing statements for graph states derived from our inequalities tolerate noise levels that are met by present experimental data. We also discuss possible generalizations of our approach to entangled states whose stabilizers are not tensor products of Pauli matrices. Our work introduces a promising approach for the certification of complex many-body quantum states.