Gaussian time-dependent variational principle for the Bose-Hubbard model

Tommaso Guaita, Lucas Hackl, Tao Shi, Claudius Hubig, Eugene Demler, and J. Ignacio Cirac
Physical Review B 100, 094529   Published 2019


We systematically extend Bogoliubov theory beyond the mean-field approximation of the Bose-Hubbard model in the superfluid phase. Our approach is based on the time-dependent variational principle applied to the family of all Gaussian states (i.e., Gaussian TDVP). First, we find the best ground-state approximation within our variational class using imaginary time evolution in 1D, 2D, and 3D. We benchmark our results by comparing to Bogoliubov theory and DMRG in 1D. Second, we compute the approximate one- and two-particle excitation spectrum as eigenvalues of the linearized projected equations of motion (linearized TDVP). We find the gapless Goldstone mode, a continuum of two-particle excitations and a doublon mode. We discuss the relation of the gap between Goldstone mode and two-particle continuum to the excitation energy of the Higgs mode. Third, we compute linear response functions for perturbations describing density variation and lattice modulation and discuss their relations to experiment. Our methods can be applied to any perturbations that are linear or quadratic in creation/annihilation operators. Finally, we provide a comprehensive overview how our results are related to well-known methods, such as traditional Bogoliubov theory and random phase approximation.